Buffalo Research Abstracts:
Breed and landrace
Rasali, D.P. 2000. Present
status of indigenous buffalo genetic resources in the western hills of Nepal.
Proceedings of the fourth global conference on conservation of domestic animal
genetic resources (Kathmandu 17-21 August 1998). Nepal Agricultural Research
Council/ Rare Breeds International, UK, pp 165-167.
About 20% of Nepal’s 3.1 million water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are in the Western hills and about 90% of these are of indigenous origin. The morphological characteristics of the Lime and Parkote buffaloes, and their crosses were distinct. In a study based on 206 indigenous buffaloes in 12 villages, the shapes of the horns, chevron marks and body sizes were found to vary among household, demonstrating the presence of genetic variation. The karyotype of 67 indigenous buffaloes revealed that the Lime buffaloes with 25 pairs of chromosomes are of the Riverine type. In general, the buffaloes are well cared for and mostly stall fed. The low productivity appears to be the core problem in buffalo production leading to the importation of milk, meat and live animals. The lack of adequate nutrition, and the supply of buffaloes with superior genetics and the poor health status are the underlying attributes. The milk production of the indigenous buffaloes were comparable to 25-50% Murrah cross buffaloes. The morphological characteristics and production performance of indigenous buffaloes have been summarized. The phenotypic genetic and socio-economic evaluation of the indigenous buffaloes in warranted. This will help develop plans for the conservation of buffalo genetic resources.
Ø Mandal, P. and Shrestha, N.P. 2000. Conservation strategies for wild buffaloes (Arna) of Nepal. Proceedings of the fourth global conference on conservation of domestic animal genetic resources (Kathmandu 17-21 August 1998). Nepal Agricultural Research Council/ Rare Breeds International, UK, pp. 163-164.
The Arna (Bubalus arnee) or
wild buffaloes are localized in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve of the Eastern
Terai region. There are 1,500 wild buffaloes in the world. In 1991, the
population of Arna in Nepal estimated at 40-50 buffaloes appears to have
declined over a number of years. This can be attributed to the degradation of
the forest pasture, gazing pressure from an increased number of domesticated
animals allowed to graze in and around the Reserve, indiscriminate crossing
between the domesticated and the wild buffaloes that share common grazing areas,
inadequate management and lack of appreciation for certain proportion of these
animals many have resulted from crosses with domestic buffaloes. The rapid
decline in the numbers has placed the Arna buffaloes at the risk of extinction.
Conservation efforts to prevent the loss of this valuable genetic resource have
P., Kuwar, B.S., Neopane, s.P. and Shrestha, N.P.
2000. Indentification, characterization and conservation strategy for
Gaddi buffalo. Proceedings of the fourth global conference on conservation of
domestic animal genetic resources (Kathmandu 17-21 August 1998). Nepal
Agricultural Research Council/ Rare Breeds International, UK, pp. 77- 80.
The Gaddi buffalo found in
the Dadedhura, Baitadi and Doti districts of the Far-western region are good
milkers that utilize the pasture land in the slopes of mid-hills and high
mountains. These animals are usually found in a 5482 km2
area at an elevation of 1500-4500 m. The total number of buffaloes in the region
has been estimated at 1,01,500. There are about 16,000 purebred Gaddi buffaloes
and 50,000 crosses with the indigenous Lime and Parkote populations, and the
Murrah breed. The Gaddi buffaloes are predominantly black in colour with a white
round patch on the forehead. Occasionally, brown and light brown coloured
animals are seen. These animals have a long face and flat head with long curved
horns. The Gaddi buffaloes are massive with an angular shaped body and sloped
hip. The morphological characteristics and production performance of the Gaddi
buffaloes are similar to the indigenous Lime and Terai buffaloes. The
morphological characteristics and production performance of the Gaddi buffaloes
have been summarized. The number of purebred Gaddi buffaloes are gradually
decreasing due to the indiscriminate use of bulls of the imported Murrah breed
to increase milk production. If the process continues, the Gaddi buffalo may
become extinct in the near future. Thus, an appropriate strategy for the
improvement and conservation of the Gaddi buffaloes needs to be introduces.
see chromosomal aberrations in hill buffalo)
Ø Rasali, D.P., Patel, R.K. and Joshi, H.D. 1998. Initial chromosomal analysis of indigenous buffaloes in the western hills of Nepal. Veterinary Review (Nepal), 13:30-33.
samples were collected from fourteen indigenous buffaloes of western hills of
Nepal kept at Lumle Farm. They were processed for lymphocyte culture within 50
hours of collection in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with foetal calf serum,
antibiotics and a mitogen at National Dairy Development Board, Biotechnology
Laboratory, Anand, Gujarat, India. The cultures were harvested at 72 hours.
Prepared slides were the screened under microscope. Results indicated that all
the buffaloes which showed Lime type phenotypic features had karyotypes with 50
chromosomes resembling to riverine buffaloes.
Ø Rasali, D.P. and Harding, A.H. 1998. Factors affecting the lactation curves in the hill buffaloes and their Murrah crossbreds raised under farmers’ management in the western hills of Nepal. Nepal Ag. Res. Journal, 2:1-7.
A milk recording study on a
total of 470 milking buffaloes that calved during the monsoon of 1993 and 1995,
comprising 314 indigenous hill buffaloes and 156 50-74% Murrah crossbreds raised
under farmers management, was carried out in the western hills. The milk
recording on individual buffalo cows was initiated from the seventh day of their
calving. The lactation curves were fitted to examine the effects of genotype,
management system, parity of the animal and year of recording by regression
analyses carried out using Wood’s (1967) Gamma function for fortnightly milk
recording at a total of 38 points in time during the lactation period. The
length of lactation which was used as a covariate for adjusting its effect on
the regression models, was significant particularly across the coefficients b
and c. The regression coefficients of Wood’s Gamma function, a (=LogeA),
b and c were 1.5393, 0.1792, and 0.05655, respectively, for local hill
buffaloes, while they were 1.8514, 0.1944 and 0.05606, respectively for the
Murrah crossbreds. The results indicated that genotype had the largest effect
followed by parity (p<0.001) particularly on the regression coefficient `a’
representing the initial rising phase of the lactation curve, as shown by their
high mean squares, 10.986 and 2.0849, respectively. For management, comprising
stall feeding and semi-stall feeding, milk yield differences tended to become
smaller with time during the lactation period. Year of milk recording was
significantly important for all the three coefficients, `a’ (p<0.05) in the
initial phase of the curve, `b’ and `c’ (p<0.001) in the latter declining
phases of the curve. This work being the first report on lactation curve in
indigenous buffaloes in the hills of Nepal should lay the foundation for future
work to establish the lactation curves to represent many situations.
Key words: Bubalus bubalis,
hills buffaloes, lactation curves, Murrah crossbreeds
R.S., Rasali, D.P. and Khanal, R.C. 1998. Preliminary investigation of early
weaning and artificial rearing of buffalo calves. Veterinary Review (Nepal),
A preliminary trial on early
weaning and artificial rearing of buffalo calves was conducted at Agricultural
Research Station (ARS), Lumle livestock farm, Four new born calves were
allocated to each of three treatment groups of feeding and management regimes.
The findings of the study showed that buffalo calves could be successfully
weaned after one month of birth and reared by feeding on locally made
concentrate mixture. Based on the preliminary findings obtained from this study,
further in-depth investigation into its technical and socioeconomical aspects is